Internasjonale nyheter

Supporting user rights for mass digitization of culture -

Assignments of copyrights photostat copies by mollyali, CC BY-NC 2.0

A few months ago the United States Copyright Office issued a request for comments on an extended collective licensing (ECL) pilot program they are considering for mass digitization projects. The Office thinks that such a program would permit greater access to cultural works by allowing institutions to engage in mass digitization and then licence those digital collections for a fee. Creative Commons and Creative Commons USA submitted comments to the Copyright Office in coordination with Wikimedia and Internet Archive.

We urged the Office to reconsider the pilot because the fair use doctrine has actually been strengthened in the U.S. due to recent court cases. This has increased the certainty with which a number of entities can engage in mass digitization. And even though the Office points toward similar pilots in Europe, their reliance on ECL is a response to the inflexibility of the current EU copyright framework. Some European cultural heritage institutions are willing to accept the ECL framework because they have no other option. U.S. institutions—such as university libraries—can rely on fair use.

The ECL system as proposed by the Office would not work well to support mass digitization projects. Many authors are not primarily interested in financial rewards—for example those that write scholarly books. And if there is no expectation of revenues for the creator, paying a collective rights organization collect fees to use such works is inefficient and in opposition to the intentions of these authors.

The proposed ECL scheme in the U.S. would be more powerful if it could do more, but the Office has chosen to favor a pilot program that would “facilitate the work of those who wish to digitize and provide full access to certain collections of books, photographs, or other materials for nonprofit educational or research purposes.” By limiting the proposed ECL scope to noncommercial uses, the Office inadvertently makes a stronger case that the activities of digitizers and users will be considered a fair use and that the ECL is not needed in the first place.

We explained that if the Office ultimately pursues an ECL pilot, it should affirmatively exclude works that are publicly licensed and allow other authors who wish to be excluded to apply a Creative Commons license to their work.

In the end, we agreed with many of the libraries that if the Copyright Office is serious about helping to increase legal mass digitization of our shared cultural heritage, it should instead focus on: 1) Encouraging the application of fair use to digitization projects; 2) Promoting the development of better copyright ownership and status information through enhanced registries, rethinking recordation, and asking copyright owners to identify themselves and their works through an internationally-compliant formalities system; and 3) Providing better access to existing copyright ownership and status information by digitizing or encouraging others to digitize and provide free access to all of the Copyright Office’s records.

Comments of Creative Commons and CC USA (PDF)


CC0 now available in Polish – official translation published -

Post written by John Weitzmann

Creative Commons and the European group of CC Affiliates are proud and happy to announce the launch of the official Polish translation of CC0 version 1.0.

Translation is an essential part of our efforts to be a truly global project, offering legal tools that work for everyone regardless of language and origins of the respective legal system. Our tools aren’t finished until everyone who wants to use them has the ability to understand the license in the language they know best. The Polish CC0 translation exemplifies how our affiliates, in this case Centrum Cyfrowe in Warsaw as hosting organization of Creative Commons Poland together with other volunteers, are achieving that goal. Together with the Polish Coalition for Open Education, CC Poland had engaged in extensive analysis of the usability of CC0 under Polish law in advance of conducting the translation, this included engagement with the Polish Ministry of Culture and Heritage and the wider community of legal experts in Poland and abroad.

The Polish CC0 translation has passed the various internal and external stages of the standard process divised for this and is now complete. Further info on the public discussion that forms part of this process can be found here (in Polish). Key contributors in the process were Helena Rymar, Marcin Serafin and Katarzyna Strycharz, and further expertise and comments were provided by Krzysztof Siewicz and Adrian Niewęgłowski. Alek Tarkowski of CC Poland and Piotr Wasilewski presented on CC0 in October 2015 at a meeting organized by the Department of Intellectual Property Law of Jagiellonian University in collaboration with Creative Commons Poland, focussing on CC0 and the boundaries of copyright law.

Polish cultural institutions for a long time had been interested in CC0 as a tool, particularly because of their collaboration with Europeana. The team of CC Poland therefore expects a large increase in the use of the CC0 by libraries, archives and museums. We are proud to hear that for example the Polish National Institute for Museums and Public Collections (Narodowy Instytut Muzealnictwa i Ochrony Zbiorów – NIMOZ) in a brochure recommends the use of CC0 for digitized museum resources.

From now on, CC0 in Polish is available on the CC server at

CC BY-SA 4.0 now one-way compatible with GPLv3 -

The declaration increases interoperability of the commons for games, hardware designs, and more

Photo by Hugh Llewelyn, licensed BY-SA 2.0, available on Wikimedia Commons.

In January we officially opened a public consultation (blog post) on CC BY-SA 4.0 unilateral compatibility with GPLv3, in accordance with our ShareAlike compatibility process and criteria. Following additional months of detailed analysis, discussion and deliberation with the Free Software Foundation and other stakeholders, we are very pleased to announce that we have added a declaration of one-way compatibility from CC BY-SA 4.0 to GPLv3 to our compatible licenses page!

Put simply this means you now have permission to adapt another licensor’s work under CC BY-SA 4.0 and release your contributions to the adaptation under GPLv3 (while the adaptation relies on both licenses, a reuser of the combined and remixed work need only look to the conditions of GPLv3 to satisfy the attribution and ShareAlike conditions of BY-SA 4.0).

This doesn’t mean that you should apply GPLv3 to your revised BY-SA 4.0 work — in most cases it makes sense to release adaptations under the same license as the original, even if not required (e.g., in the case of CC BY or CC0) to facilitate ongoing collaboration with the “upstream” and peer “forks”. But if your use case calls for or requires (in the case of remixing CC BY-SA 4.0 and GPLv3 material to make a single adaptation) releasing a CC BY-SA 4.0 adaptation under GPLv3, now you can: copyright in the guise of incompatible copyleft licenses is no longer a barrier to growing the part of the commons you’re working in. We hope that this new compatibility not only removes a barrier, but helps inspire new and creative combinations of software and culture, design, education, and science, and the adoption of software best practices such as source control (e.g., through “git”) in these fields.

Increasing Interoperability

Since 2005 Creative Commons has been working to increase the legal interoperability of the commons — roughly the ability to use works in the commons together, usually in the form of adaptation, without legal barriers. This has meant retiring little-used CC licenses that were incompatible with other licenses — meaning works under the now-retired licenses could not be remixed with works in the commons under more popular licenses. It has meant working with other license stewards and user communities to migrate projects to licenses compatible with those used for the largest pools of relevant works, as when we worked with the Free Software Foundation and the Wikimedia community to facilitate the latter migrating from the GNU Free Documentation License to CC BY-SA 3.0 as its default license. It has meant working with governments to use and mandate broadly used licenses, or the least ensure that government-specific licenses are compatible with broadly used licenses, most often CC-BY.

Finally, this long-term push for increasing interoperability meant developing an explicit mechanism for declaring compatibility between CC BY-SA and similar share-alike or copyleft licenses. Absent such a mechanism, works under different copyleft licenses cannot be used together to form an adaptation, as copyleft licenses typically require that adaptations be released under the same license as the original work. We first introduced the mechanism in CC BY-SA 3.0 (2007) but it has yet to be used for that license — the most pressing interoperability barrier at the time was mitigated instead through a temporary allowance for license migration (see Wikimedia above) — and we believe compatibility should only be declared after much careful analysis and deliberation. With CC BY-SA 4.0 (2013) the mechanism was enhanced, allowing the possibility of unilateral as well as bilateral compatibility. Nearly a year ago CC BY-SA 4.0 was declared bilaterally compatible with the Free Art License 1.3.

Since the beginning of version 4.0 consultations (2011) and before, we have been discussing with the Free Software Foundation and other stakeholders the possibility of declaring unilateral compatibility from CC BY-SA 4.0 to GPLv3, allowing new contributions to adaptations of works under the former to be released under the latter, and thus also allowing adaptations to be created from works under both licenses. The demand for such an arrangement comes from a variety of use cases, including games and other smart artifacts for which it isn’t always easy to separate software and non-software, hardware designs for which both CC BY-SA and GPL family licenses are popular, and artists who wish to require that adaptations of adaptations not only be allowed, but facilitated through availability of a “preferred form of the work for making modifications”, as the GPL requires. These may seem like niche issues if you think only of media such as text, images, and data. But as the saying goes, “software is eating the world”; the winning educational resources, cultural artifacts, and research inputs and outputs of the future will be software, designed by software, processed by software, or all three. Mitigating legal barriers to remixing “software” and “non-software” in the commons is one thing we can do to help ensure the commons remains vibrant.

Increasing interoperability of the commons is a very long-term, ongoing process, in part enabled by cooperation between license stewards within and across particular domains. CC BY-SA 4.0 one-way compatibility with GPLv3 is a huge win. It took many years to achieve. There are still many incompatibilities among licenses used for data, hardware designs, software, and other materials, both within those domains and especially across them. What commons interoperability fixes do you want to see in the next 5-10 years?

Institute for Open Leadership 2: Apply now -

Cape Town by Kemal Kestelli on Flickr, CC BY-ND 2.0.

Earlier this year, Creative Commons and the Open Policy Network hosted the first Institute for Open Leadership (IOL). The IOL is a training and support program to empower new leaders interested in crafting and implementing an open licensing policy within their discipline. We had a diverse cohort of 14 fellows who came together for a week in January, 2015 in San Francisco. The fellows worked with mentors and each other to hone their open policy project ideas. Since then they’ve working within their institutions and fields to implement their open policy plan.

Today we’re opening the application period for the next round of the institute. IOL 2 will take place March 14-18, 2016 in Cape Town, South Africa.

Application instructions are on the Institute for Open Leadership webpage. Applications are due October 30, 2015. We will accept 15 IOL fellows.

We encourage applications from a variety of areas, including the public sector, cultural heritage institutions, publishing, and scientific labs. We’re interested in individuals who are eager to become experts in open licensing, pursue new opportunities for open sharing of content and data, and directly influence policy decisions in their institution and field of work.

Thanks again to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundationand the Open Society Foundations for their support for the Institute for Open Leadership.

Creative Commons awarded $450,000 from the Arcadia Fund to support open access publishing for authors -

Creative Commons is pleased to announce a grant award in the amount of $450,000 over 3 years from the Arcadia Fund, the charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin. Since its inception in 2001, Arcadia has awarded grants in excess of $331 million. Arcadia works to protect endangered culture and nature. Creative Commons will use funds from Arcadia to develop tools that complement the current CC license suite and empower authors to retain or regain their right to publish so they can make their scholarly and academic works available for public use.

Building on the success of the current CC licenses — now with nearly 1 billion licenses in use across over 9 million websites — Creative Commons is enthusiastic about developing tools that can be used by authors who “write to be read” but face all too common barriers to making their research openly available. These resources will be developed for global use, taking into account country-specific copyright laws, customs, and language. Once in widespread use, these tools are expected to increase the number of articles and publications that are available for broad public use.

To accomplish this ambitious goal, Creative Commons will work with CC’s international network of over 100 affiliates working in over 80 regions around the world. This core group will next convene at the 2015 Creative Commons Global Summit on October 14-17 in Seoul, South Korea. A dedicated summit session will be held to discuss the best approach to formulating tools and materials that enable authors to retain and regain their rights, while also addressing the needs of publishers. Collaborators on this project include Authors Alliance, Free Culture Trust, and SPARC, all of whom are dedicated to supporting authors, institutions, and the public in promoting access to research and scholarly work. Importantly, this group also includes academic publishers who support or have interest in promoting open access principles.

Creative Commons is grateful to the Arcadia Fund for its essential support of our work. We look forward to sharing our progress and success with all of you!

About Creative Commons and our collaborators

Creative Commons enables the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legal tools to help realize the full potential of the Internet—universal access to research and education, and full participation in culture.

Authors Alliance is a membership-driven non-profit organization that supports and advocates for authors who write to be read.

Free Culture Trust is dedicated to helping authors and artists make their works widely available by removing bureaucratic and structural barriers to sharing.

SPARC is an international alliance of organizations dedicated to creating a more open system for sharing research and scholarship.

European migrant crisis: Czech teachers create and share resources -

This is a guest post by Jan Gondol.

Pencil by Mari Pi, Public Domain.

In the midst of the European migrant crisis, the Czech Republic is showing the power of open educational resources (OER).

EDUin, a non-profit organization based in Prague worked with the Czech organization of civic education teachers to address the current migrant crisis. Students in schools were asking questions and wanted to understand what was going on. Why are so many people on the run? What is the difference between a refugee and a migrant? What is the difference between migration, emigration and immigration?

The teachers worked on developing the materials for Czech schools, and the resulting worksheets are now shared on their website (in the Czech language). These worksheets are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0, and there are different versions for ages 6-11 and ages 12-16.

“This activity shows that open educational resources can help react to a new situation very quickly in a way traditional textbooks cannot,” says Tamara Kováčová, coordinator of EDUin’s open education program. “Because of fast distribution, materials get to schools around the country in a matter of days. Teachers get support in time when they need it and teaching is up-to-date. Furthermore, it’s possible to join several school subjects together on phenomenon based learning principle.”

Open Licensing Policy Toolkit (DRAFT) -

Files. By Pieter J. Smits, CC BY 3.0

Creative Commons believes that public and foundation funded resources should be openly licensed by default. We have written extensively about the importance of open licensing policies in government, foundations, and have built the Open Policy Network and the Institute for Open Leadership with our open policy partners around the world. In the past few years, the United States federal government has accelerated its interest in and implementation of open licensing policy requirements on the products of publicly funded grants and contracts.

To support the education of government staff creating, adopting and implementing open licensing policies – we’ve created an Open Licensing Policy Toolkit. While this draft is tailored for U.S. government federal staff, it can easily be revised to meet the needs of any country. We share it here under a CC BY 4.0 license hoping others will take, improve, and modify it to meet regional, national and/or local needs. We look forward to seeing what you create… and we are happy to collaborate with you should you identify an opportunity to work with your government on broad open licensing requirements on publicly funded resources.

Open Licensing Policy Toolkit (Google docs version)
Open Licensing Policy Toolkit (Wiki version)

PLOS Publication Costs Update

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Open Access scientific publishing makes scholarship available globally and relieves scholarly institutions from the overwhelming burden of commercial subscription fees. Because of this proven success, institutions, funders, foundations and government agencies dedicate significant resources to encourage authors to publish in Open Access journals.

For the past six years, PLOS has absorbed increasing publishing costs without raising author fees. At the same time, PLOS invests resources to improve the quality of PLOS ONE output, thoroughly checking for ethics, competing interests and robust science. As a result, readers can be confident that research published in PLOS ONE is scientifically rigorous and reflects thorough peer review. In addition, PLOS invests millions of dollars in research and development to increase the efficiency, transparency and speed of scholarly communication for all its journals. The center of this investment is the platform ApertaTM, a new submission system currently under development that aspires to substantially improve the publishing experience for authors, reviewers, editors and readers.

To support these endeavors, the Article Processing Charge (APC) for PLOS ONE authors will increase to $1,495 as of October 1, 2015 (effective 10:00 AM PDT). This is the first increase in the PLOS ONE APC since 2009.

PLOS ONE promotes a broad global reach designed to amplify the journal and individual article awareness. Currently, PLOS ONE journal articles garner more than 1.9 million article downloads per month.

PLOS remains committed to ensuring that lack of funds not be a barrier to Open Access publication by providing support to authors with financial need. Periodically, PLOS adjusts the criteria for its financial assistance programs to better reflect demand and the global economy and as of October 1, 2015 (effective 10:00 AM PDT) will utilize the HINARI standard for the Global Participation Initiative. The Publication Fee Assistance program remains unchanged.

The post PLOS Publication Costs Update appeared first on The Official PLOS Blog.

Momentum for Article-Level Metrics: New Uses

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Reproduced here from the original June 11, 2014 PLOS Newsroom post

The visibility of a research article extends beyond the journal in which it appears, and today includes press coverage, discussion forums, social networks, blog posts, post-publication reference managers and downloads. To best represent the visibility and influence of individual articles, the scientific community is turning toward article-level metrics, which in the broadest sense are metrics that apply at the article level rather than the journal level. The field has rapidly expanded, and in addition to the more academic tracking related to citation and downloads, there is now the ability to track the more social aspects of how articles are used, shared and discussed whether via CiteULike, Facebook or Twitter. Article-level metrics provide granular information on how individual articles are used.

Article-level metrics in practice currently come in two flavors: ALMs and altmetrics. ALMs refer to the suite of metrics, from social to academic, with a focus on academic tracking and altmetrics refers to the suite of metrics, from social to academic, with a focus on social tracking. Authors, publishers, funders and patients turn to one or another, or both, depending on need. PLOS ALMs provide metrics across a suite of sources that includes HTML, XML, and PDF downloads, PubMed Central use, Scopus, Web of Science and CrossRef citations, CituULike and Mendeley reference management services, and Nature Blogs, and social media platforms Twitter and Facebook.

Authors Engage

Researchers use article-level metrics not only for their own interest in tracking an article’s distribution and use but also to showcase the influence of their work in tenure and promotion packages. When scientist Steve Pettifer at the University of Manchester, UK, applied for promotion in 2013 he incorporated article-level metrics, rather than just citations or downloads, into his promotion package to best showcase the influence of his 2008 PLOS Computational Biology review article, one of the most viewed and downloaded reviews to be published in any PLOS journal. Although it’s not possible to know if the metrics helped him get the promotion, “I’m definitely a convert,” he says, according to his interview in Nature. For Emilio Bruna, professor, Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation, University of Florida, active use of Impactstory metrics was a positive experience. “I included Impactstory data in my portfolios for promotion to full professor and selection to UF’s Academy of Distinguished Teaching Scholars,” he says. Both applications were successful.

ALMs are an “intuitive way for non-scientists to understand the relevance and interest of seemingly esoteric research,” says Andrew Farke, expert in dinosaur evolution and Augustyn Family Curator of Paleontology in Claremont, California. For a privately funded researcher “metrics can be helpful to show supporters of our research program the impact that is made by their contributions,” he says. ALMs benefit readers of scientific literature at all levels by helping to guide them to the most important and influential work among the overwhelming amount of scientific literature published today, both in Open Access and subscription journals. Those leveraging ALMs and the inherent post-publication filtering of articles include Graham Steel, Patient Advocate and Open Access proponent. “ALM’s are a valuable tool that we now have,” he says. “I prioritize my reading in part based on ALMs.”

Publishers Respond

PLOS was one of the earliest publishers to offer ALMs on all articles. As authors increasingly want to track the influence of their work and use article-level metrics, additional publishers have responded. Open Access publishers BioMed Central, PeerJ, Copernicus Publications, Frontiers, eLife and the Public Knowledge Project (PKP) all publish metrics with their articles. Journals published with the PKP’s Open Journal System often operate independently, with “few resources and in developing regions,” says Juan Pablo Alperin, Researcher with the PKP and PhD candidate in Education, Stanford University. Article-level metrics not only help authors better track their impact but also “help authors better understand their audiences,” he says.

Article-level metrics are not just for Open Access journals. Subscription-based publishers see the value in them as well. Springer publishes more than 2,200 journals, approximately 325 of them Open Access. The company “is changing from a sole focus on the journal impact factor to providing multiple metrics” to authors and editors, says Martijn Roelandse, Publishing Editor, Neurosciences, according to The Chronicle of Higher Education. Springer’s ALMs include CrossRef to measure citations and its own download statistics to track use. The growing list of subscription publishers that provide article-level metrics includes The Rockefeller University Press, Cell Press, Nature Publishing Group and John Wiley & Sons.

Publishers are joining forces, as well, to innovate and leverage their individual ALM experiences. As of June 2014, CrossRef Labs, a project of CrossRef and PLOS, has indexed 748,254 articles with PLOS’ ALM application, available through an open API, for the purpose of improving technical aspects prior to industry-wide scale up of ALM use. PLOS was a pioneer in the development of ALM applications, and as a strong advocate of Open Access encourages others to develop additional tools through the shared API.

Funders and Institutions Determine Value

Joining publishers in the shift away from use of journal-based metrics as a surrogate measure of individual research article quality and impact are funders and institutions. The momentum of this shift is seen in the large increase of signatories to the Declaration of Research Assessment (DORA) statement, originally drafted by publishers and editors of scholarly journals in December 2012. As of June 2014, 18 months since inception, the declaration has 10,668 individual and 467 organizational signatories around the globe, increases of nearly 6,800 and 470 percent, respectively. DORA signatories acknowledge that improvements in research assessment, including article-level metrics, are critical to “increase the momentum toward more sophisticated and meaningful approaches” to evaluate research. Institutional funders of the statement include US-based Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UK-based National Health and Medical Research Council and France-based INSERM.

The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation believes that traditional metrics such as citation count “do not adequately capture the impact of research,” says Vicki Chandler, Chief Program Officer, Science, of the Moore Foundation. “ALMs are part of a growing set of scholarly output measures that we are paying attention to.” Funders turn to ALMs on a case-by-case basis for a more comprehensive understanding of how their grant funds influence research, promotions, education and policy, to satisfy government requirements to make research outcomes more transparent, and to monitor the broader impact of the grants they distribute. In the UK, The Research Excellence Framework, a system for assessing research quality in UK higher education institutions that has influence over funding decisions, allows scientists to use altmetrics to demonstrate the social impact of their research in their reports. The Wellcome Trust specifically states in its Open Access Policy that “it is the intrinsic merit of the work,” rather than the particular journal the work appears in, that should be considered in funding decisions. ALMs, in part, help establish this intrinsic merit.

Progress in ALM adoption is also taking place at research institutions. The University of Pittsburgh uses the dashboard of ALM aggregator PlumX to display the impact of researchers from a cross-section of departments throughout the university, facilitating total institute and departmental metrics. The university is working to increase use and practical application of ALMs through lunch and learn trainings, with one recent seminar focused on “Using Altmetrics to Demonstrate Scholarly Impact.” Trainings include “toolbox tips” on best practices for library colleagues to use with the broader University of Pittsburgh community. Practices such as this propel use of ALMs forward.

Businesses Invest and Organizations Collaborate

Article-level metrics make good business too. Digital Science, launched by MacMillan Publishers, became an investor in the startup in 2012. The growing list of organizations and companies outside the publishing industry that incorporate ALMs in their business offerings include Mendeley, CrossRef and Impactstory. Since August 2013, Impactstory has more than doubled its user base, says Stacy Konkiel, Director of Marketing & Research. Most recently, commercial publishing firm EBSCO Information Services acquired Plum Analytics in January 2014 for its PlumX database that aggregates altmetrics.

Industry collaborations on article-level metrics, promoted by interest in ALMs, are moving forward to improve technical and practical usability standards. Efforts such as NISO’s Alternative Assessment Metrics Initiative and CrossRef Labs’ pilot with PLOS ALMs indicate that standard organizations are working together to explore, identify, and advance metrics standards and best practices. The annual PLOS ALM conferences, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, are growing in number of attendees, diversity of organizations represented and overall popularity. In 2013, 86 participants attended the PLOS ALM Workshop, up 72 percent from the 50 attendees in 2012, representing the research, publishing, funding and technology industries in Europe, Canada, and the United States. New to the conference in 2013 was Annual Reviews, which each year publishes 46 extensive review volumes focused on disciplines within the Biomedical, Life, Physical, Social Sciences and Economics. As for 2012 and 2013, PLOS will organize the 2014 ALM Workshop planned for December 4-5 2014. A parallel event in London this year is also in the works.

Patient Communities Become Users

Even the patient community wants to understand ALMs and how they might benefit from their use. In 2012 the Health Research Alliance (HRA), a national consortium that now numbers 57 private foundations and public charities that fund biomedical research, sent a representative to the meeting in order to understand ALMs “as a tool to help assess the career progress of funded investigators,” as an “indicator of progress toward a treatment goal” and even for donor cultivation purposes, says Kate Ahlport, Executive Director of HRA. Patient organizations and disease foundations such as Autism Speaks attended the 2013 ALM conference as did the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, PCORI, an organization mandated by President Obama’s Affordable Care Act with a focus on improving healthcare delivery and outcomes.

Harnessing Momentum

The peer-reviewed research paper remains a central research output that informs research assessment. Those currently using article-level metrics have the opportunity to track the impact and use of their work post-publication and also to promote, post-publication, the visibility of their work within the research community and beyond to the larger public. The challenge for ALM developers is to convert passive observers to active users. Efforts underway to increase and improve practical use of ALMs ultimately will increase the benefit to, and use by, those putting in the hard work to generate the manuscripts. These examples show how article-level metrics help paint the evolving picture of a published work over time. The suite of metrics, from social to academic, provides a comprehensive assessment of an article’s influence, both immediate and over time. Those who embrace the use of these metrics have a deeper understanding of the impact and influence of individual scholarly works. As ALM tools improve, greater adoption and practical use are certain to follow.

The post Momentum for Article-Level Metrics: New Uses appeared first on The Official PLOS Blog.

Congrats to EFF and the dancing baby -


There are plenty of examples to depict our broken copyright system, but the “dancing baby” case is one of the most notorious. That’s the one where Universal Music used the DMCA to take down a 29-second YouTube video of an adorable baby dancing to “Let’s Go Crazy” by Prince. Putting aside the legal questions, it is unclear what motivated Universal Music to go after this home movie where the Prince song was almost indecipherable. It’s impossible to imagine people were using the short video as a substitute for buying Prince albums, and of course, it’s impossible to imagine this sort of enforcement would help the troubled record industry earn goodwill from the public. But sadly, this is (or at least was) the state of copyright.

Most DMCA takedowns result in quiet removals of content, but this one resulted in 8 years of litigation that continues to this day. The mother of the dancing baby, Stephanie Lenz, teamed up with EFF and fought back. They sued Universal Music for violating Section 512(f) of the DMCA by misrepresenting their claim in the takedown notification. The fight continues, but the good news is this week the Ninth Circuit issued an opinion that affirmed some of the key principles at stake in the case.

Specifically, the panel of circuit judges held that copyright holders have to consider fair use before sending a DMCA takedown notification. The court also definitively explained something most of us already knew – fair use is authorized by law. It’s not simply an excuse for infringement or even an affirmative defense. It is outside the scope of copyright.

The decision wasn’t perfect. It went on to state that if copyright holders like Universal fail to consider fair use before sending a takedown, it just creates a question of fact for the jury to decide whether the rights holder had a good faith belief that the claim was valid. The court also made a somewhat confusing reference to copyright holders who use automated systems to determine what content to have taken down, stating that doing so was a reasonable solution but not explaining how that would possibly account for fair use.

Nonetheless, the key takeaway from the case was a win for fair use. It confirmed that exceptions and limitations to copyright are affirmative rights, and it created a mechanism to help deter sham DMCA takedowns. Given how easy it is to have content removed using the DMCA, it is increasingly the tool of choice for anyone looking to have content removed online, whether or not they have a valid copyright claim. This case should help deter at least the most blatant bad actors from misusing the statute in this way.

Perhaps the case also symbolizes a larger shift in how rights holders view reuse of their content. Not every use of copyrighted content is infringing, and not every use is a threat.

U.S. Secretary of Education highlights Schools using OER to #GoOpen -

Williamsfield video by U.S. Department of Education is licensed CC BY

I’m pleased to announce two important updates from the U.S. Department of Education!

#1: Williamsfield Community Unified School District embraces OER

Today, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited Williamsfield Community Unified School District in Illinois to highlight the progress the rural school district has made in shifting to digital and open educational resources (OER) to connect their students to the world. “The walls break down,” Zack Binder, the Pre K-12 Principal said. “You’re no longer in Williamsfield, Illinois. You have the same access to this information that anyone in the world does.”

Over the past two years, the 310-student district decided to adapt and adopt OER (e.g., EngageNY) rather than procuring new commercial textbooks for students, and direct those savings towards new devices for students.

“We worked to start leveraging open education resources in May of 2013. It coincided with a decision to purchase—or not purchase—a math textbook series. We decided to leverage OER and invest the money that was allocated for textbooks into technology and technological infrastructure,” said Williamsfield Superintendent Tim Farquer.

While this move saved money, and allowed the district to buy tablets and laptops for students and teachers, it was mostly about using Creative Commons (CC) licensed educational resources to make the content better – it helped change the classroom by empowering teachers and students to customize learning resources for students.

“The biggest transition for me, from what it was like before to what it is like now, is that kids can do things that they’re interested in, instead of having one prescribed way to do things that comes from a textbook,” said Lori Secrist, a district science teacher.

The newly formed K12 OER Collaborative, an initiative led by a group of 12 U.S. states, has similar goals and is in the process of creating comprehensive, high-quality, OER-supported K–12 mathematics and English language arts that are aligned with state learning standards.

If you’d like to replicate this in your school district, see the CC-USA FAQ on OER in Williamsfield.

#2: U.S. Dept of Ed hires its first full-time OER leader

Secretary Duncan announced today the hiring of the Department’s first full-time OER position to lead a national effort to expand schools’ access to high-quality, openly-licensed learning resources and help districts and states follow the path of Williamsfield. Andrew Marcinek will serve in the Department’s Office of Educational Technology (OET) as the first “Advisor for Open Education.”

“Creating a dedicated open education advisor position at the Department will greatly enhance our ability to support states and districts as they move to using openly licensed learning resources,” said Richard Culatta, Director of the OET. “The use of openly-licensed resources not only allows states and districts to adapt and modify materials to meet student needs, but also frees up funding to support the transition to digital learning.”

The availability of low-cost, high-quality learning resources in U.S. K12 public schools is a priority for President Obama’s ConnectED Initiative.

These exciting moves are part of the growing momentum within the Obama Administration to support OER and open access to publicly funded resources. Last month Creative Commons and 100 other organizations signed a letter calling on the White House to ensure that educational materials created with federal funds are openly licensed and released to the public as OER. Creative Commons looks forward to working closely with the Department’s new Open Education Advisor and will continue working with our partners to advance OER and open licensing policy in the U.S. Government, and around the world with the members of the Open Policy Network and the CC Affiliate Network.

Join the conversation on social media with @creativecommons using hashtags #ReadyforSuccess / #GoOpen / #OER

Related press / blog posts:

2014-2015 PLOS Progress Update Available

Plos -

Each year PLOS releases a Progress Update, an annual overview of innovations, activities and journal highlights that provide insight into how the organization is moving scientific communication and discovery forward.

This year topics include:
• Transparent and Continual Assessment Advances Science
• One PLOS Many Communities
• Metrics Enhancements Improve Assessment
• Standards Enable Reproducibility
• Resources Foster Early Career Researchers
• Open Access Advances Science
• Curated Content Accelerates Discovery
• Journal Highlights

Today’s scientific communication landscape is rapidly evolving. Advances in technologies offer opportunities to alter the way people work, communicate and share knowledge, with the global community accessing scientific content and exchanging information and ideas faster and in more diverse places than ever before. In addition, governments and funders are releasing policies that mandate the research they fund be published Open Access, setting the stage for the acceleration of scientific discovery and innovation.

But challenges remain. Scientific communication is far from its ideal and PLOS is striving to establish new standards and expectations for scholarly communication. These include a faster and more efficient publication experience, more transparent peer review, assessment though the lifetime of a work, better recognition of the range of contributions made by collaborators and placing researchers and their communities back at the center of scientific communication.

To learn more about the organization’s efforts on continual assessment, communities and journal highlights, access the 2014-2015 PLOS Progress Update.

The post 2014-2015 PLOS Progress Update Available appeared first on The Official PLOS Blog.

CC Global Summit Program Schedule -

We’re happy to present the draft program schedule for the 2015 Creative Commons Global Summit in Seoul. In addition to the keynotes, the program contains a diverse selection of sessions ranging from open business models, 3D printing and design, open education, CC technology, copyright reform advocacy, open access, and community cooperation. The summit includes Creative Commons partners from around the world, and will incorporate sister organizations such as EFF and companies like Shapeways and 500px. The program highlights several Korean organizations and projects in the creative industries and open data sector. Art Centre Nabi, a major art gallery in Korea, is preparing a special exhibition related to CC to celebrate the Global Summit.

We received over 130 session proposals, and our programming committee (comprised of the CC Korea team and other CC affiliates, staff, and board) worked to incorporate as many program ideas as possible considering the time and space constraints. The summit will be held at the National Museum of Korea and adjacent National Hangeul Museum on the 15th and 16th October and at the Content Korea Lab on the 17th. We are grateful to our lead sponsor Private Internet Access and all our sponsors for their meaningful support of this year’s summit.

The program is still subject to change. Also, it’s not too late to register for the summit. Join us for what looks to be a fantastic event.

Announcing the PLOS Early Career Travel Award Recipients

Plos -

Experience in presenting research findings and participating in the scientific dialogue are important aspects to the professional development of researchers early in their careers. In support of their growth as effective communicators, PLOS is pleased to announce the recipients of the PLOS Early Career Travel Award.

“I want to personally thank all of the applicants who shared their thoughts and provided insight into issues facing early career researchers,” says Véronique Kiermer, Executive Editor of PLOS. “It’s clear from the number and quality of applications that improving opportunity to engage in the scientific dialogue is an important topic for ECRs. We are gratified that the recipients of this award will be able to share their research with a larger audience.”

The Program was open to ECRs currently enrolled in a graduate program or within five years of receiving a graduate degree whose work was accepted for presentation at a scientific conference. Over the course of two months, PLOS received more than 400 applications, which invited answers to the following questions:

• What is the biggest hindrance to you as an early career researcher in communicating science?
• What should be done to fix this?
• What could you actively do as an early career researcher to address this?

Congratulations to the ten recipients of the PLOS Early Career Travel Award Program:

Alienor Chauvenet
The University of Queensland

Abigail Hatcher
University of the Witwatersrand

Denice Higgins
The University of Adelaide

Rémi Louf
Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay

Akinola Stephen Oluwole
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

Thomas Pfeffer
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Ellen Quillen
Texas Biomedical Research Institute

Carrie Shaffer
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Uttam Babu Shrestha
University of Southern Queensland

Jonathan Tennant
Imperial College London

If you are interested in notifications about the PLOS Early Career Travel Award Program and other updates, please sign up for the PLOS email list.

You may also be interested in…
PLOS journals — find out which PLOS journal is the best fit for your research

The PLOS Blogs Network:

SciComm — an open forum for opinion and discussion on the art and science of science communication
The Student Blog — a forum for the next generation of scientists and science writers to foster skills while connecting with colleagues and PLOS authors

The post Announcing the PLOS Early Career Travel Award Recipients appeared first on The Official PLOS Blog.

Our Kickstarter was a huge success, thanks to all of you! -

We are thrilled to announce that 1,687 people backed our Kickstarter campaign, which successfully raised $65,420 – over 130% of our funding goal. We’re told by Kickstarter that Creative Commons is now among the top 5% of publishing projects in the history of the crowdfunding platform. All thanks to you, our supporters!

What’s next?! Email us ( to nominate companies or creators who we should profile in our book and see our work in progress by following the project on Medium.

Thanks for sharing!

CC Global Summit Logo Winner -



Congratulations to Naresh Agrawal, the winner of the Creative Commons Global Summit logo competition. Naresh said, “I found the work of your organization inspiring and thought that it would be great to be a part of your journey.” We received nearly 50 logo submissions. Thanks so much to everyone who entered the contest, and to the hundreds of voters!

The programming committee is hard at work reviewing the proposed sessions for the summit. Registration is open, so sign up to join us in Seoul 14-17 October. Early bird registration ends this Sunday, 23 August.

On repositories from an international perspective

European Open EDU Policy Project -

Last week for two days, Centrum Cyfrowe was happy to host a unique group of representatives of organizations holding or preparing to hold repositories of open educational resources. Our goal was to gather in one place both those with extensive experience in the area and those who could profit from it, and we were joined by guests from Norway, Belgium, Germany, Czech Republic and Romania.

How they do it in Norway

A comparison of two large projects from Norway and Belgium was definitely the highlight of the two days. Norwegian Digital Learning Area (NDLA) is an organization that keeps a repository funded with government grants for school digitization, the money transferred annually to local governments. Each of them spends 20% of the subsidy for the platform and the remaining 80% to buy necessary school equipment and traditional learning aids, including textbooks. The NDLA platform is designed for high school teachers and students and contains fully free and open electronic study materials for over 50 subjects. The Norwegian model relies on procuring high quality educational resources on the market (about 60% of the budget is spent on materials created by selected teachers and professional authors of educational resources) and includes buying also the rights to existing commercial works (such as The Hobbit movie). The users themselves can create and share their own resources as well. According to NDLA, 98% of teachers in Norway know about the platform, and over 60% use it (while 50% declare to use it frequently). 

How much does it cost? About EUR 8 million annually, in other words, EUR 40 per student per year grants access to a database with 30 million weekly hits, 100 million page views and 2 million users. Its resources are enough to fill 3 million teaching hours. NDLA has a kind of “competition”, too: educational publishers have set up two big platforms with resources that can nonetheless be used only by those students and teachers who have paid for access. What’s more, Norwegian publishers, although initially skeptical about the initiative to create a platform financed with public money are now more than pleased with the outcome: not only do they scoop large parts of the NDLA budget as contractors, they also use the free materials posted on it to create their own, commercial, paid resources.

What is perhaps most interesting, however, is the fact that around the time when the idea of the platform was taking shape, the Norwegian educational system was at a stage similar to ours: before the repository has been built, Norway had a strong, consolidated market of educational publishers, strong teachers unions, a lot of good textbooks, and its educational policy lacked clearly defined goals. Then came the reform introducing a unified core curriculum, subsidies for textbooks and the programs for school digitization. Sounds familiar? The difference between Norway and Poland is that the Norwegians managed to think long-term about the creation of open resources and were able to inspire and motivate the local authorities to co-finance this strategy (without giving up on supporting the schools’ efforts to build IT infrastructure.)

Meanwhile, we have seen so far several dispersed projects without a long-term plan for content acquisition, nor for maintaining and motivating users to use the repositories. Scholaris, for instance, despite a robust and continuous funding, has for years been unable to work out a coherent model for involving teachers in the creation of materials and has not become even remotely as popular and commonly used as NDLA. Today, all our hopes lie with the “Digital School” which is soon to unveil an e-book platform. The project’s challenge comes from the fact that in its current form it is an advanced technological solution lacking sufficient support from the administration and a plan to maintain, develop and improve the project in the future.

And how about Belgium?

All of this takes time, as clearly shown by the team responsible for the second, phenomenal (Flemish) repository. KlasCement is a publicly funded platform with free open educational materials and 87.5 thousand users of almost 40 thousand shared resources (such as lesson plans, articles, applications, web pages, computer programs, exercises, photographs and videos). The Flemish platform is gamefied, meaning that upon logging in for the first time users gain 1000 points that they can “spend” on browsing the resources. As they run out of points, the system encourages them to contribute – by commenting, adding a resource or contacting other users. This is how points are “earned”. For the last 15 years the repository has been in the care of a team ensuring the quality of submitted materials and developing strategies for user involvement. All resources are assigned standardized metadata and have their quality and legality checked. Everything is submitted under free licensing. KlasCement has also developed a system allowing to include materials from other organizations: as a result, the database grows continuously, regardless of the size of users’ input.

Towards a public repository

Two countries and two models of publicly funded repositories of open educational materials – both of which, although they may differ in detail, place great emphasis on building a community of teachers centered around the use and creation of open resources, on keeping them involved and interested in the platform, on motivating them to share their materials. Especially KlasCement shows its users that the repository belongs to them and is created by them.

A repository of open educational resources is an idea that has also been on our minds for some time now. This is because we firmly believe in the full openness of publicly funded educational resources and their digitization. We also believe that developing Polish education in this direction will improve the quality of educational materials, stimulate the creativity and potential of our teachers, and increase the student engagement in the educational process. The EU has already set these directions and Poland, too, has taken this course once already, through the “Digital School” programme. What we have to do now is avoid getting too comfortable, learn from the experiences of those who were successful and consistently strive to build modern education.

Next round of CC Global Summit keynotes -

Two weeks ago we announced the initial set of speakers for the Creative Commons Global Summit. Today we’re happy to share two additional keynotes for our event: Soh-Yeong Roh and Kilnam Chon. The summit will take place in Seoul, South Korea from 14-17 October. Be sure to register for the summit–early bird registration ends 23 August!

Soh-Yeong Roh by licensed under CC BY.

Soh-Yeong Roh is the founder and Director of Art Center Nabi in South Korea. She founded the center in 2000, transforming a contemporary art museum into a new media arts center. Nabi brings together art, technology, humanities, and industry, to create new art and cultural artifacts. As the main venue for new media art production in Korea, Nabi promotes cross-disciplinary collaboration and understanding among science technology, humanities, and the arts. Ms. Roh is also a board member of Creative Commons Korea.

Kilnam Chon via ICANNWiki licensed under CC BY-SA.

Kilnam Chon helped the development of the Internet in Asia and the rest of the world and is an outspoken advocate for open systems. In 2012, he was inducted into the inaugural class of the Internet Society’s (ISOC) Internet Hall of Fame. Chon developed the first Internet in Asia called SDN in 1982 and has worked on networking systems since the early 1980s. He founded and is a chair of numerous organisations including the Asia Pacific Networking Group (APNG) and Asia Pacific Advanced Network (APAN). Recently his research and projects have focused on building institutional and cultural infrastructure for ecological and sustainable Internet and cyber commons.

4.0 Bahasa Indonesia translation – and a book! -

Hot on the heels of the announcement a few weeks ago of new Japanese and Māori translations of our 4.0 licences, we have another new Asia-Pacific translation to celebrate – Bahasa Indonesia. Even more exciting, this time the translation team has gone above and beyond to complete a companion project – a Bahasa Indonesia translation of Open Content – A Practical Guide to Using Creative Commons Licences, creating a local how-to guide to go with the new licence translations.

With approximately 42 million native speakers and about 260 million speakers in total, Bahasa Indonesia is one of the world’s most widely spoken languages. The official translation of 4.0 was undertaken by CC Indonesia’s Alifia Qonita Sudharto, with supervision from Project Director Ari Juliano Gema and assistance from the Wikimedia Indonesia team. The translation process began in January and after a fairly quick and non-controversial drafting and consultation period went live on Wednesday.

The translation was relatively easy and uncomplicated compared to other 4.0 translation efforts. This is partly because of experience gained by the team translating the 3.0 licences, but also because more and more Indonesians are becoming familiar with the content and purpose of the licences. This sped up the drafting process, as everyone began on the same page, making language approval much simpler right from the start. This compares to the 3.0 process, when the debate started with whether “law firm” should be translated as “firma hukum” or “kantor hukum” in the preamble and continued throughout the licence. For 4.0, the team was able to focus on substantial matters such as the decision to translate “Similar Rights” as “Hak-hak Serupa”, rather than “Hak Terkait” which literally translates as “Related Rights”.

The team decided to build upon this growing local knowledge by ensuring there was a good guide for those wanting to take up the licences. Rather than writing their own, they chose to translate an existing resource that already had a strong reputation for being clear and thorough. This led them to Open Content, a joint publication of Wikimedia Deutschland, the German Commission for UNESCO and the North Rhine-Westphalian Library Service Centre. To further help to build local knowledge resources, they have also created a Bahasa Indonesia infographic poster which explains the difference between copyright, patents and trademarks for Indonesians.

Wikimedia Indonesia will proudly host an official launch of the new licence translations and the two new publications at their Jakarta office on 15 August.

Congratulations to the translation team for completing not one but two difficult translations, and for coming up with such an amazing initiative to encourage local understanding and uptake of CC. We can’t wait to see the resulting growth in open resources in Indonesia.

Creative Commons CC 0 – nu på svenska!

CC Sverige -

Vi på Creative Commons har med hjälp av Olle Pettersson äntligen ett första utkast till att få licensen CC 0 till svenska, för att det ska bli på riktigt behöver vi dock era inspel. Det är öppet för att kommentera översättningen ända fram till sista augusti. Antingen kommenterar du i dokumentet här, eller så kommenterar du nedan eller skickar ett mejl till mig Kristina(at)

CC0 1.0 Legal Code Translation Worksheet – Swedish


Note: adapted from CC0 translation worksheet (

Translated page: .


Original Translation Notes about translation challenges Creative Commons (Creative Commons)
Note: do not translate parenthetical (Creative Commons) Universal
Note: please coordinate with other jurisdictions in your language on the translation of this term. Universell Official translations of this legal tool are available in other languages.
Note: this is not legal code. CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION ÄR INTE EN JURIDISK BYRÅ ELLER ADVOKATFIRMA OCH TILLHANDAHÅLLER INTE JURIDISKA TJÄNSTER ELLER JURIDISK RÅDGIVNING. TILLHANDAHÅLLANDE AV DETTA DOKUMENT SKAPAR INTE ETT KLIENT-/RÅDGIVARFÖRHÅLLANDE. CREATIVE COMMONS TILLGÄNGLIGGÖR DENNA INFORMATION I BEFINTLIGT SKICK. CREATIVE COMMONS LÄMNAR INGA GARANTIER GÄLLANDE ANVÄNDNING AV DETTA DOKUMENT, TILLHÖRANDE INFORMATION ELLER MATERIAL SOM TILLHANDAHÅLLS NEDAN, OCH FRISKRIVER SIG FRÅN ANSVAR FÖR SKADA SOM UPPSTÅR SOM FÖLJD AV ANVÄNDNING AV DETTA DOKUMENT ELLER INFORMATIONEN ELLER VERK SOM TILLHANDAHÅLLS NEDAN. Statement of Purpose Avsiktsförklaring The laws of most jurisdictions throughout the world automatically confer exclusive Copyright and Related Rights (defined below) upon the creator and subsequent owner(s) (each and all, an ”owner”) of an original work of authorship and/or a database (each, a ”Work”). Lagstiftningen i de flesta länder i världen ger automatiskt exklusiv upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter (definieras nedan) till skaparen och efterföljande ägare (var och en, en ”rättighetshavare”) av ett originellt litterärt eller konstnärligt verk och/eller en databas (”Verk”). Certain owners wish to permanently relinquish those rights to a Work for the purpose of contributing to a commons of creative, cultural and scientific works (”Commons”) that the public can reliably and without fear of later claims of infringement build upon, modify, incorporate in other works, reuse and redistribute as freely as possible in any form whatsoever and for any purposes, including without limitation commercial purposes. These owners may contribute to the Commons to promote the ideal of a free culture and the further production of creative, cultural and scientific works, or to gain reputation or greater distribution for their Work in part through the use and efforts of others. Vissa rättighetshavare vill permanent avstå från dessa rättigheter till ett Verk i syfte att bidra till en ”commons” bestående av konstnärliga, kulturella och vetenskapliga verk (“Commons”) som allmänheten, på ett tillförlitligt sätt och utan att behöva oroa sig för att det senare ska kunna göras gällande som intrång i upphovsrätt, kan bygga vidare på, modifiera, införliva i andra verk, återanvända och sprida vidare med så stor frihet som möjligt i vilken form som helst till vilket syfte som helst, inklusive men inte begränsat till kommersiella syften. Dessa rättighetshavare kan bidra till Commons för att främja idealet av en fri kultur och det fortsatta skapandet av kreativa, kulturella och vetenskapliga verk, eller för att deras Verk ska bli känt eller få större spridning delvis genom andra människors användning och ansträngning. For these and/or other purposes and motivations, and without any expectation of additional consideration or compensation, the person associating CC0 with a Work (the ”Affirmer”), to the extent that he or she is an owner of Copyright and Related Rights in the Work, voluntarily elects to apply CC0 to the Work and publicly distribute the Work under its terms, with knowledge of his or her Copyright and Related Rights in the Work and the meaning and intended legal effect of CC0 on those rights. Med dessa och/eller andra syften och motiv, och utan några krav på ytterligare ersättning eller kompensation, väljer personen som applicerar CC0 på ett Verk (“Upplåtaren”), i den utsträckning som denne har Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter till Verket, frivilligt att applicera CC0 på Verket och offentligt distribuera Verket enligt dess villkor, med kunskap om dennes Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter till Verket och meningen med CCO och den rättsliga verkan CC0 är avsedd att ha på dessa rättigheter. 1. Copyright and Related Rights. 1. Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter. A Work made available under CC0 may be protected by copyright and related or neighboring rights (”Copyright and Related Rights”). Copyright and Related Rights include, but are not limited to, the following: Ett Verk som gjorts tillgängligt enligt CC0 kan vara skyddat under upphovsrätt och relaterade eller närstående rättigheter (“Upphovsrätt och Närstående Rättigheter”). Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter innefattar, men är inte begränsat till, följande: i. the right to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform, display, communicate, and translate a Work; i. rätten att reproducera, bearbeta, distribuera, framföra, visa, kommunicera, och översätta ett Verk; ii. moral rights retained by the original author(s) and/or performer(s); ii. ideella rättigheter som behålls av upphovspersonen/upphovspersonerna och/eller framföraren/framförarna; iii. publicity and privacy rights pertaining to a person’s image or likeness depicted in a Work; iii. rättigheter avseende namn och bild i reklam och personlig integritet som rör en persons bild eller utseende återgivet i ett Verk (publicity and privacy rights); iv. rights protecting against unfair competition in regards to a Work, subject to the limitations in paragraph 4(a), below; iv. rättigheter till skydd mot illojal konkurrens gällande ett Verk, med förbehåll för begränsningarna i punkt 4 (a), nedan; v. rights protecting the extraction, dissemination, use and reuse of data in a Work; v. rättigheter till skydd mot extrahering, spridning, användning och återanvändning av data i ett Verk; vi. database rights (such as those arising under Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, and under any national implementation thereof, including any amended or successor version of such directive); and vi. databasrättigheter (såsom de rättigheter som vid sidan av upphovsrätt följer av Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv 96/9/EU av den 11 mars 1996 om rättsligt skydd för databaser, så som det är implementerat och/eller förändrat eller ersatt); och vii. other similar, equivalent or corresponding rights throughout the world based on applicable law or treaty, and any national implementations thereof. vii. andra liknande, likvärdiga eller motsvarande rättigheter i världen som grundas på tillämplig lag eller fördrag, och alla nationella implementeringar därav. 2. Waiver. 2. Avståendeförklaring. To the greatest extent permitted by, but not in contravention of, applicable law, Affirmer hereby overtly, fully, permanently, irrevocably and unconditionally waives, abandons, and surrenders all of Affirmer’s Copyright and Related Rights and associated claims and causes of action, whether now known or unknown (including existing as well as future claims and causes of action), in the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the ”Waiver”). I den utsträckning som det är möjligt enligt, men som inte strider mot, tillämplig lag, avstår, överger och frånsäger sig härmed Upplåtaren publikt, fullständigt, permanent, oåterkallerligen och ovillkorligen all Upplåtarens Upphovsrätt och Relaterade rättigheter och därmed relaterade anspråk och rätt att vidta rättsliga åtgärder, både nu kända och okända (inklusive existerande såväl som framtida anspråk och rätt att vidta rättsliga åtgärder), när det gäller Verket (i) i samtliga områden världen över, (ii) under den maximala skyddstiden enligt tillämplig lag eller fördrag (inklusive framtida utökningar), (iii) i varje nu existerande och framtida medium oavsett antal kopior, och (iv) för vilket syfte som helst, inklusive men inte begränsat till syften av kommersiell, reklam- och marknadsföringsmässig natur (“Avståendeförklaringen”). Affirmer makes the Waiver for the benefit of each member of the public at large and to the detriment of Affirmer’s heirs and successors, fully intending that such Waiver shall not be subject to revocation, rescission, cancellation, termination, or any other legal or equitable action to disrupt the quiet enjoyment of the Work by the public as contemplated by Affirmer’s express Statement of Purpose. Upplåtaren gör Avståendeförklaringen till förmån för varje medlem av allmänheten och till nackdel för Upplåtarens arvingar, med full avsikt att Avståendeförklaringen inte ska bli föremål för återkallande, rescission, uppsägning, hävning, eller annan rättslig åtgärd eller rättvis handling för att förhindra det ostörda nyttjandet av Verket av allmänheten som avsett i Upplåtarens uttryckliga Avsiktsförklaring. 3. Public License Fallback. 3. Publik Licens. Should any part of the Waiver for any reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law, then the Waiver shall be preserved to the maximum extent permitted taking into account Affirmer’s express Statement of Purpose. Om någon del av Avståendeförklaringen av någon anledning skulle sakna rättsliga verkan eller inte uppnå önskad effekt enligt tillämplig lag, ska Avståendeförklaringen fortsätta gälla i största möjliga tänkbara mån med beaktande av Upplåtarens uttryckliga Avsiktsförklaring. In addition, to the extent the Waiver is so judged Affirmer hereby grants to each affected person a royalty-free, non transferable, non sublicensable, non exclusive, irrevocable and unconditional license to exercise Affirmer’s Copyright and Related Rights in the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the ”License”). Utöver vad som bedöms förenligt med Avståendeförklaringen, upplåter Upplåtaren till varje berörd person en royalty-fri, icke-överlåtbar, icke-exklusiv, oåterkallerlig och ovillkorlig licens att utöva Upplåtarens Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter i Verket (i) i samtliga områden i världen, (ii) under den maximala skyddstiden enligt tillämplig lag eller fördrag (inklusive framtida utökningar), (iii) i varje nu existerande och framtida medium oavsett antal kopior, och (iv) för vilket syfte som helst, inklusive men inte begränsat till syften av kommersiell, reklam- och marknadsföringsmässig natur (“Licensen”). The License shall be deemed effective as of the date CC0 was applied by Affirmer to the Work. Should any part of the License for any reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law, such partial invalidity or ineffectiveness shall not invalidate the remainder of the License, and in such case Affirmer hereby affirms that he or she will not (i) exercise any of his or her remaining Copyright and Related Rights in the Work or (ii) assert any associated claims and causes of action with respect to the Work, in either case contrary to Affirmer’s express Statement of Purpose. Licensen ska anses gälla från det datum då CC0 applicerades på Verket av Upplåtaren. Skulle någon del av Licensen av någon anledning sakna rättsliga verkan eller inte uppnå önskad effekt enligt tillämplig lag, ska sådan partiell ogiltighet eller ineffektivitet inte ogiltigförklara resterande del av Licensen, och i sådant fall bekräftar härmed Upplåtaren att denne inte kommer att (i) utöva Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter som kvarstår i Verket eller (ii) göra därmed relaterade anspråk och omständigheter för talan gällande avseende Verket, i något av fallen som motsätter sig Upplåtarens uttryckliga Avsiktsförklaring. 4. Limitations and Disclaimers. 4. Begränsningar och friskrivningar. a. No trademark or patent rights held by Affirmer are waived, abandoned, surrendered, licensed or otherwise affected by this document. a. Inga varumärkesrättsliga eller patenträttsliga rättigheter som innehas av Upplåtaren avstås, överges, ges upp eller licensieras eller annars påverkas av detta dokument. b. Affirmer offers the Work as-is and makes no representations or warranties of any kind concerning the Work, express, implied, statutory or otherwise, including without limitation warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non infringement, or the absence of latent or other defects, accuracy, or the present or absence of errors, whether or not discoverable, all to the greatest extent permissible under applicable law. b. Upplåtaren erbjuder Verket i “befintligt skick” och gör inga utfästelser eller ger några garantier gällande Verket, uttryckligen, undersförstått, lagstadgat eller annars, inklusive men inte begränsat till garantier gällande äganderätt, marknadsmässig kvalitet, lämplighet för ett särskild ändamål, att det inte föreligger något intrång, eller frånvaro av dolda eller andra fel, tillförlitlighet, eller förekomsten eller frånvaron av fel, oavsett om de kunnat upptäckas, allt detta i den utsträckning det är möjligt enligt tillämplig lag. c. Affirmer disclaims responsibility for clearing rights of other persons that may apply to the Work or any use thereof, including without limitation any person’s Copyright and Related Rights in the Work. Further, Affirmer disclaims responsibility for obtaining any necessary consents, permissions or other rights required for any use of the Work. c. Upplåtaren friskriver sig från ansvar för att klarera rättigheter med andra personer vars rättigheter kan gälla Verket och all typ av användning därav, inklusive men inte begränsat till annans Upphovsrätt och Relaterade Rättigheter till Verket. Vidare, friskriver Upplåtaren sig från ansvar för att inhämta nödvändig samtycke, tillåtelse eller andra rättigheter som krävs för att använda Verket. d. Affirmer understands and acknowledges that Creative Commons is not a party to this document and has no duty or obligation with respect to this CC0 or use of the Work. d. Upplåtaren är införstådd med och bekräftar att Creative Commons inte är part enligt detta dokument och inte har någon skyldighet eller förpliktelse gällande denna CC0 eller användningen av Verket. Additional languages available: Please read the FAQ for more information about official translations.

Note: this is not legal code. Andra språk tillgängliga: Vänligen läs Frågor och Svar för mer information om officiella översättningar. . Back to Commons Deed

Note: this is not legal code. Tillbaka till CC0-handlingen CC HQ: Same comment as above. The Swedish 4.0 translation uses “Tillbaka till den juridiska överssiktssidan.”

Tusen tack!


Abonner på nyhetsinnsamler - Internasjonale nyheter